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The study of physics represents a wide variety of study concentrations. From lectures to labs, the physics program offers courses that encompass both theoretical and practical applications. Here students will find informative descriptions, content, and syllabi for undergraduate courses currently offered by the Physics Department.

**PHY 100
PHYSICS FOR NONSCIENCE MAJORS
3, 3/0; NSIF**

A nonmathematical consideration of historical world views in physics and their relevance to society. May not be substituted for PHY 107, PHY 108, PHY 111, or PHY 112. Not open to physics majors.

**PHY 103
UNDERSTANDING SOUND
3, 3/0; NSIF**

A conceptual consideration of all aspects of sound and noise. Discussion of the generation and propagation of sound, the ear and voice, musical sounds and instruments, and the recording and reproduction of sound. May not be substituted for PHY 107, PHY 108, PHY 111, or PHY 112. Not open to physics majors.

**PHY 104
PHYSICS FOR K-8 TEACHERS
3, 2/2; NSIF**

Nature of science; energy transfer; force interactions; systems; Newton’s laws; magnetic, gravitational, light, and thermal interactions; conservation of energy; and simple circuits as appropriate for teachers of K-8 science. Meets National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) and the New York State Education Department (NYSED, 1996) learning standards for math, science, and technology, and elementary and intermediate physical standards (Standard 4). Inquiry-based classroom comingles laboratory with lecture.

**PHY 105
INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
3, 2/1**

Builds skills commonly used in physics classes. Class activities designed to help students learn problem-solving skills using mathematical formulations, observation, data taking, data analysis, and theoretical interpretation in the context of physics.

**PHY 107
GENERAL PHYSICS I
4, 3/2; NSIF**

Algebra-based study of mechanics, measurement, kinematics, Newton;s laws, gravity, conservation of energy and momentum, and rotation; laboratory.

**PHY 108
GENERAL PHYSICS II
4, 3/2**

Algebra-based study of electricity and magnetism: static electricity (including electrifields and potential), current electricity and circuits, magnetism, and electromagnetic interactions; laboratory.

**PHY 111
UNIVERSITY PHYSICS I
5, 3/4; NSIF**

Calculus-based treatment for science majors of particle motion, kinematics, mechanics, Newtonian dynamics, energy transformation, conservation laws of energy and momentum, gravitation, and rotation; laboratory. Required for majors.

**PHY 112
UNIVERSITY PHYSICS II
5, 3/4**

Continuation of PHY 111. Calculus-based introduction to heat, electricity, magnetism, and optics; laboratory. Required for majors.

**PHY 213
UNIVERSITY PHYSICS III
3, 3/0**

Continuation of PHY 111 and PHY 112. Calculus-based introduction to physical optics, kinetic theory, classical wave motion, and interference phenomena; introduction to special relativity. Required for physics majors.

**PHY 304
OPTICS AND VISION FOR TEACHERS AND ARTISTS
3, 2/2; TSIF**

Phenomena of light, vision, color, and photography, as appropriate for teachers of science and visual arts majors. Meets the National Science Education Standards S (NRC, 1996) and the New York State Education Department (NYSED, 1996) learning standards for math, science, and technology, and elementary and intermediate physical setting standards (Standard 4). Inquiry-based classroom comingles laboratory with lecture using handheld apparatus and demonstrations in the lecture theater and take-home laboratory activities using everyday materials. Can be used as a sequence with PHY 104.

**PHY 305
MODERN PHYSICS I
3, 3/0**

Principles of relativity; concepts of waves, particles, atomic structure; introduction to quantum theory. Required for physics majors.

**PHY 306
MODERN PHYSICS II
3, 3/0**

Molecular structure, solid state, nuclear physics.

**PHY 308
OPTICS
3, 3/0**

Fundamentals of geometrical and physical optics; the nature and propagation of light; Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, polarization; single, double-slit, and grating diffraction; lasers; and holography.

**PHY 310
COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS LABORATORY
2, 0/4**

Introduction to basic computational techniques using physics material from intermediate-level courses. Required for physics majors.

**PHY 315
HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS
3, 3/0**

First, second laws; entropy; chemical potential; enthalpy; free energy; Gibbs function; Maxwell relations; phase transitions; and statistical mechanics of classical and quantum distributions.

**PHY 320
INTRODUCTION TO THEORETICAL PHYSICS
4, 4/0**

Introduction to advanced mathematical applications: partial differential equations, complex numbers, special functions, boundary value problems, orthogonal functions and expansions, matrices, and integral transform techniques. Required for physics majors.

**PHY 323
STATICS
3, 3/0**

Application of mechanics to the study of static equilibrium of rigid and elastic bodies. Includes composition and resolution of forces; moments and couples; equivalent force systems, free-body diagrams; equilibrium of particles and rigid bodies; forces in trusses and beams; friction forces; first and second moments of area; moments and product of inertia; methods of virtual work and total potential energy.

**PHY 324
ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
3, 2/2**

Calculus based treatment of DC and AC circuits, with introduction to commonly used analysis methods; laboratory.

**PHY 410
ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY
3, 0/6**

Selected advanced experiments chosen from the areas of mechanics, thermal physics, sound, optics, electricity and magnetism, and modern physics.

**PHY 412
PHYSICS SEMINAR
1, 1/0**

Readings, reports, and discussion of current job opportunities and/or problems and research in physics. May be repeated up to three times.

**PHY 425
CLASSICAL MECHANICS
4, 4/0**

Vectorial particle mechanics in one, two, and three dimensions; rigid-body motions in three dimensions; motion in central force fields; moving reference frames; forced harmonic oscillators; and introduction to mechanics in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation.

**PHY 435
INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS
3, 3/0**

Postulates of quantum mechanics with selected examples; uncertainty principle; operator formalisms; Heisenberg and Schroedinger representations; angular momentum; spin.

**PHY 440
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM I
3, 3/0**

Coulomb forces; electric fields and potentials; Laplace equation; boundary value problems and dielectrics; multipole distributions; magnetic induction; introduction to Maxwell's equations.

**PHY 441
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM II
3, 3/0**

Vector potentials; Faraday’s law; magnetism; electromagnetic wave propagation; radiation.

**PHY 445
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
3, 3/0**

Nucleons and nuclei; radioactivity; detectors; interaction of nuclear radiation with matter; nuclear reactions; nuclear models and gamma emissions; introduction to high-energy physics.

**PHY 448
INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE PHYSICS
3, 3/0**

Theory of the structure of solids: unit cell, lattice dynamics and phonons, specific heats, band theory, superconductivity, electron dynamics, and statistics.

**PHY 450
SUPERVISED PHYSICS LABORATORY TEACHING
Variable credit**

Supervised in-classroom introduction to college laboratory teaching techniques and procedures for selected upper-division physics majors.

**PHY 500
PHYSICS EDUCATION RESEARCH SEMINAR
3, 3/0; Sp 07, Sp 08**

Designed for practicing or future high school physics teachers. Includes reading and discussion of current research in physics education, evaluation and discussion of the application of this research to the New York State physics core curriculum, and the exploration and practice of assessment techniques in high school physics.

**PHY 502
INITIAL PHYSICS TEACHING EXPERIENCE FOR ALTERNATIVE CERTIFICATION
3, 3/0**

Full-time physics teaching with college supervision and school supervision: lesson and unit design, classroom management, designing and implementing student assessment, participation in school community.

**PHY 507
ENERGY AND FORCE INTERACTIONS FOR K-8 TEACHERS
3, 1/4**

Designed for elementary teachers to better understand physics and the nature of science. Focus on interactions and energy: energy, force, friction, gravity, magnetic fields, light, and electricity. Not appropriate for students with extensive physics background.

**PHY 510
PROCESS SKILLS IN PHYSICS TEACHING
6, 3/3**

Use of inquiry-based teaching techniques to develop concepts central to the New York State physics core curriculum. Use of mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design to pose questions, seek answers, and develop strategies to achieve these goals in the physics classroom with adolescent learners.

**PHY 511
COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS FOR TEACHERS
3, 3/0**

Study of problems from various physics content areas using a variety of computational tools (e.g. spreadsheets, computer programming) and techniques (Newton’s method, Runge-Kutta). Physical systems including harmonic oscillator with damping, gravitational force (orbits, central force problem), electric and magnetic field and potential calculations, thermal and statistical physics, motion with air friction, wave motion, quantum mechanical tunneling and scattering. Pedagogical issues associated with using computation in the high school classroom.

**PHY 518
WAVE PHENOMENA AND OPTICS
3, 3/0; F 07**

Wave phenomena, including types, motion, interaction, and propagation; diffraction and interference; geometrical optics. Emphasizes research-based profiles of student conceptual difficulties and instructional strategies to remedy them.

**PHY 520
MODERN PHYSICS
3, 3/0**

Major developments in twentieth-century physics and how they changed our understanding of the nature of space and time and the structure of matter. Application of physics education research to teaching relativity and quantum physics in a high school physics course.

**PHY 521
EXPERIMENTS IN MODERN PHYSICS FOR TEACHERS
3, 3/0**

Hands-on activities and advanced experiments chosen from the areas of optics, modern physics, nuclear physics, and solid state physics with the goals of learning modern laboratory techniques, data analysis, and lab report writing.

**PHY 522
PHYSICS OF ENERGY SOURCES FOR TEACHERS
3, 3/0**

Different energy sources, their global supply, and physical laws governing their present use in the world. Topical energy sources and physical laws for the hydrogen fuel cell, solar cell and wind turbine; using them in applications and devices

**PHY 525
NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS
3, 3/0**

Major developments in nuclear and particle physics in the twentieth century, culminating in the standard model. Discussion of how these developments changed our understanding of the structure or matter.

**PHY 590
INDEPENDENT STUDY
3, 0/0**

**PHY 620
POWERFUL IDEAS AND QUANTITATIVE MODELING: FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY
6, 3/3**

Designed for practicing or future high school physics teachers. Activities and laboratory experiences develop ideas in force, motion, and energy. Exemplary pedagogical techniques are modeled and examined.

**PHY 622
POWERFUL IDEAS AND QUANTITATIVE MODELING: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
6, 3/3**

Designed for high school physics teachers. Activities and laboratory experiences develop ideas in electricity and magnetism. Exemplary pedagogical techniques are modeled and examined.

**PHY 690
MASTER’S PROJECT
6, 3/0**

Study of a problem of special interest, pre-approved by the physics graduate committee and submitted in acceptable form according to directions given by the Physics Department.

Buffalo, NY 14222 • Phone: (716) 878-6726 • Fax: (716) 878-4421

physics@buffalostate.edu

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